analysis, Business Intelligence, businesses, Corporate Intelligence, corporations, creative, critical thinking, culture, forethought, future sight, imagining, individuals, Intelligence, listening, mentor, opinions, respect, Strategic Intelligence, thinking
NOTE: Remember to look at previous and more current postings for other topics.
In this longer paper, which you should read in chunks and not at one sitting, I will cover the following topics and sub-topics:
For starters – A Healthy Preamble
An Opinions example
Type A and Type B leaders
Intelligence & Analysis
Information vs Intelligence
Tools & Databases
Types (some) of Biases
Happiness at Work
Ethics & Integrity
Reference information & material
Type A and Type B leaders
For starters – A Healthy Preamble
Over the past couple of years, several folks come to me seeking advice, looking for an Intelligence mentor. They were junior to me in age and actual ranking and yes, I was flattered by these individuals.
But I had to turn them down as they worked on different teams, for different supervisors. And as I was not a supervisor where I worked, it would have rubbed some short-sighted people the wrong way. To be more specific, at the time, I was an Intelligence Analyst with the least Intel experience.
At that time, when I made the leap to the Intelligence arena, I was a senior cyber-security/InfoSec subject matter expert. The Intelligence division U.S. Navy Captain who brought me on believed I had what it took to become an effective Intelligence Analyst. He had read some previous papers of mine and knew of my background / work from the cyber-security division I was in at that same agency.
I am a thinker and I do not always toe the line, I like to think outside the norms, outside that perennial box if you will and I like to toss out ideas and thoughts (not frivolous) that causes extra thought to be given – rather than the superficial, topical thinking that many people do in order to make others happy.
The reason why folks came to me is because I like to think about multiple factors surrounding some event or incident, using all of my previous career backgrounds. I have been pretty single-minded in my life journey with a permanent goal of always “being curious” about things around me because of globalization. I want to learn about things, not just everything that catches my eye of course. I want to learn the disparate pieces I have learned and use that knowledge on situations that come down the pike regarding global matters, cyber-security, Intelligence (analysis, business/competitive & strategic), innovation and streamlining.
Look, I like and enjoy:
– – – Spy/intelligence thrillers and some mysteries – books, movies and series – thinking about the content and consequences and possibilities rather than just passively reading for enjoyment
– – – Music, from classical to country, to jazz, to smooth jazz, to blues, to pop and to World music to name a few (not big on rap) – I previously played trumpet in a concert/marching band and while in college, learned to play piano (trumpet and piano are two different scales)
– – – Multiple advanced math classes, chemistry and physics in college
– – – Exposure to different environments around the world
– – – Learning about brain improvement / mental developmental programs, to see how far I can push my own brain and
– – – Learning the various foreign languages I listed in my bio for specific purposes – to try to understand people around the world and how they think and how they might act
These areas listed above all tie in together, they help you take in new information from different perspectives. They help you accept information/data that is non-native or natural to you and allow you to assimilate it and/or use it after a bit of tweaking – or without tweaking.
Learning different things just flat out help you to take in other new pieces of data and allow you to analyze it in different ways. You have to expect to see something different in the things you look at and visualize it as to what it might have been or could be.
During a 2010 Intelligence training session at a location where investigative work was undertaken, the host asked us (about 40-45 of us) if anyone knew what the mangled piece of equipment was that we were looking at.
No one said anything, so I piped up and said it was a jet turbine engine. The host acted surprised and paused as if no one answers that question – he asked me how I knew that. I told him that after our tour and with the other items of info we could see and my love of reading ‘many,’ ‘many’ things (science, science fiction, thrillers, etc.) – that was the only possible conclusion that could be reached…
This is one example why folks have asked me for mentoring advice. People know that I look at things, and think about it – I take off my own preconceived filters, going outside of the norm if necessary and make rational, logical decisions. Sometimes you have to use creativity but you absolutely cannot b.s. anyone or beat around the bush – you “have” to tell the truth, especially if you do not know the answer… As you should know, lying will only get you in hot water or fired!
Another reason folks have come to me is because I look people in the eye and respect everyone for the individuals they are. It does not matter to me if an individual is far junior to me, a peer or someone most senior – I listen as best I can to what they are saying.
I also attempt to understand where they are coming from, their work situation (and possibly life situation) and any other factors I can take note of to come to whatever thought process I might have.
If you listen to people and treat them with respect, then most of your battle is won. What battle you say? Well, it is the battle of winning people over and having them take you seriously. And the people I am referring to are those without hidden agendas or ulterior motives – those who want to win in getting the job, any job, done successfully, effectively and efficiently as possible. Small minded people and those who try to shaft you, well, they only get one shot.
Don’t get me wrong, if a person does show their true colors, those colors of less than desirable attributes, I ‘will’ still work with that person professionally to get the job done. But from that point on, there will be no trust and no personal camaraderie.
Be forewarned, multiple people have multiple opinions on Intelligence and Critical Thinking. Your primary task is to filter out the chafe and go for the good stuff. You have to do your own reading, studying, ‘thinking’ and ‘analysis’ ultimately on your own.
You should dig up information on your own, find a quiet space and contemplate things in your head – let things stew and marinate some of that content you’ve been learning / reading / investigating.
Just because a person is an expert, self-proclaimed or otherwise, that person may not know everything, they just believe they do. And, some of these folks will discount anything someone else with a different slant or knowledge that could be better. That ‘expert’ may give lip service and pretend they are taking it under serious advisement but they are just throwing that info into the mental trash heap. There are far too many of these kinds of individuals around – DO NOT become like that, there is too much info out there today for any one person to be aware of. Sooo…. please, become a person who is very knowledgeable that everyone can respect, not the ‘expert’ who thinks that they know everything and is insufferable.
An Opinions example
Here, take Malcolm Gladwell, author of “The Tipping Point” and “Blink” book successes. Some people in the intelligence circles have poo-pooed his books as being too glib or too superficial or too ‘duh…’
The thing is there is good info in his books. Not all of the content may be relevant but a good portion of the content DOES give pause to thinking in a different manner. People may say “duh….” after they read some of the content, but they did not think much about certain aspects ‘before’ they read those sections. Yes, they are clear after you read them. The people I am referring to saying “duh….” are those experts who believe they do not require input from others…
Ultimately, you, yourself, have to form your own opinion and not just rely totally on someone else’s opinion.
+ + + Info here in this piece is simply my opinion and advice coming from a guy you do not know at all.
But note, no matter what I write here, it is only the tip of the iceberg, there is a lot more info out there on becoming a better thinker, a critical thinker and using intelligence to achieve the best outcome.
My ‘stuff’ here is only compendium of multiple thoughts from previous learnings and experiences, hopefully in a decent order, for your reading, to tickle your fancy to go further in your own knowledge journey.
I mentioned finding a quiet spot, if you can; because many work place environments have gone back to the bull pen open air arrangements, not even cubicle walls. Some of these settings are not conducive to good solid thinking. Many of these settings are chaotic and those settings do cause loss of efficient thought processes. And if you do manage to have that laser focus on what you’re thinking about, you’re draining the heck out of your body and your mind. You go home too enervated to enjoy your off-hours.
Be aware of those leading you, there are still too many people in charge who will just run you into the ground without any regards for your well-being. Hopefully you can make a correct decision before you work for a leadership style you cannot work with. Or hopefully, you can make a move out from under the debilitative leadership style.
Do your own research, not just Wikipedia, as to what Type A and Type B leaders are like.
Type A and Type B leaders
There are also Type C (and Type D, not defining here) individuals. Be cautious of what definitions you use to label these folks because they may be misleading. As well, some people have combinatorial makeups pulled from two or three of these labels.
Leadership is very crucial and the type of leader you follow, or are subordinate to, can make or break parts of your career. See the reference section below for some primary definitions.
A great leader encourages the people on their teams and helps them to prosper and grow.
Sorry if I seem to be repeating myself here, but this is a crucial aspect.
Many past and current great leaders have a knack for listening to those around them, no matter if those doing the talking are senior OR junior them, they listen.
So, you, as a staff member, team member, whatever the designation (or even another leader) – you owe it to yourself to pay attention and listen to those above you, even if ‘you’ believe that leader to be incompetent, you listen until that leader is replaced or you leave the team.
The bottom line here is that you must listen, before you can talk and make an impact.
You must also make a decidedly significant effort to put aside any kind of discriminatory traits you may hold, whether those traits are misogynistic, racist, age, weight, looks or religiously related. It is not your place to judge others by their exterior.
You must and should be judging those leaders above you and others around you by the character and integrity of that other person.
You must attempt to think, critically, about whatever you’re studying, researching or analyzing in different ways so you can be sure of coming up with the best possible scenario, using the info and whatever tools you have at hand.
Most of all and I cannot state it enough, you “must” be willing to listen to others. It does not matter if they are senior or junior to you, they ‘might’ have an elusive piece of information you can use. They might spark some insight you were not aware of but could have been tickling the outer edges of your mind or your thinking. Listening plays a crucial role in critical thinking and by listening, I mean truly listening to whoever is talking to you – with you not thinking about what you want to say because you are impatient and want to have your say.
Critical thinking takes effort and you must expend that effort to fruitful gains. Whenever you start down the critical thinking process path, you have to be cognizant of:
= = Who is giving you information? Does that person have some skin in the game for a particular outcome? Is that person attempting to ‘win,’ putting a feather in their cap or do they care about ‘winning’ because it is the right thing to do for the team? Is that info from a reliable source?
= = Where is the info coming from? Is the info slanted with some kind of bias? The worst case scenario for you is ‘only’ relying on one source of data. You MUST use more than one source of content and bounce the info off of one another to see what shakes out as the more likely outcome. There is a specific intelligence term used for this one, but this is what it boils down to – comparing information content and the sources as to the best, or at least the most solid, veracity.
Is the info coming from an enemy (a) of an enemy (b), you know this one – right, to legitimately point out info about that enemy (b) or is the info being provided to falsely doom that enemy (b) so the other enemy (a) can move in and fill that void?
= = Why is the info coming out when it is and in the method delivered? Is it delivered on the front page of a newspaper or in a back section? Is it a research paper, from a prominent university and author or is it from a university and author with previous credibility problems? Is the content a white paper from a commercial outfit with a specific slant or a truly unbiased thought piece?
= = What kind of info is being delivered? Is that data high level material with a massive amount of baroque and/or technical terminology terms in a ‘possible’ attempt to obfuscate the information or to manipulate the reader? Is the content full of technical mumbo-jumbo to hide the gist of the data or is the set of info clearly written and easily followed material with the info very well laid out? Is the info even feasible – for instance, can that corporation (or country) actually produce Widget-31 or Weapon-Z from their limited (or vast) resources?
= = What kind of situation is unfolding? And why is it unfolding? Is it one of diplomatic, business or militaristic emphasis? Is the situation sliding towards hostility or is it simply a matter of bad faux-pas’? Is it due to a water shortage, or an oil shortage, or even a lack of food? Is it due to the leader’s greed for wealth (there will be indicators)?
There are many, many reasons where you will need to perform critical thinking in your analysis efforts.
Anyone who puts their mind to it can learn to improve their intelligence skills. And I do mean anyone.
A note of caution, there are different intelligence circles – especially in the intelligence agencies and military divisions – where outsiders are not fondly welcomed. Because if you are better than they are or appear to be better, you may (or not) have a difficult time breaking through that ‘outsider’ barrier.
To get into an Intelligence Analyst class, you have to belong to an entity that sends its staff to these formal classes. But after having gone through a couple of these classes myself, I strongly believe you can gain this knowledge effectively by buying and ‘reading’ multiple books.
You can also join groups on LinkedIn even to ask for advice and tips.
There are of course, several colleges that offer degrees in Intelligence, Strategic Intelligence and/or Business Intelligence – but, you will have to look for and compare these on your own.
Here are a couple of books I recommend on ‘Thinking’ – “Smart Thinking ” and “Thinking, Fast and Slow .”
Intelligence & Analysis
While I may not toe the line and dislike having/using the same rigid thinking as others, I do not put other senior people/leaders, teammates or the company/agency in a bad light. I will swallow my pride and go along with whatever is occurring but I do so after making my thoughts known, respectfully of course.
Even if you dislike the direction something is going in, you cannot make waves bucking the current if you are not in charge. That ‘might’ get you removed or fired.
You can still stand your ground, to a degree while making a good case for yourself to attempt to sway others. Just have your ammo at hand to aide you; have good background content handy, have compelling information/evidence to use. There are multiple mechanisms you can to provide better intelligence, which I’ll cover later.
Information vs Intelligence
You will also have to ‘always’ remember one thing – Intelligence is only Intelligence once information has been analyzed by analyst(s) with the resulting output then becoming actual intelligence as requested or directed by your customer and/or your bosses.
– – – Information is not intelligence, it is just information.
But, once you, or other analysts, do your magic – your analysis – that information then becomes intelligence for consumption by others (customers). That resulting output will be in various forms, from OSINT, HUMINT, SIGINT, IMINT and any other “INTs.” I repeat, that info only becomes one of these “INTs” after analysis is performed on your original INFORMATION. And that info will/may come from:
• Open Source (OS – not classified) – newspapers, books, web sites, news outlets, etc., or
• Human (HUM) gathered info – people talking to other people or people observing other people, or
• Signals (SIG) – basically anything electronically transmitted today, from satellites, to Wi-Fi, to cellular, to microwave, to infrared, even analog [voice], or
• IMAGES (IM) – primarily from satellite, airplane or UAV coverage
Besides listening, you must also be able to observe what is going on around you, or around the center of the topic at hand. Looking for different or specific behavioral aspects of an individual, a company or even a country is something you always want to keep in mind. The behaviors of various entities, individuals or societies, can always provide good information. And different scenarios (nation’s economy tanking) and time periods (winter time vs spring) can alter the behavior of these entities from good to bad or vice versa.
Keep an eye out for behavior that deviates from any possible norms.
= = Watch the person talking, are they giving away any sub-conscious tells? Like a micro-expression eye tick or lip sneer or even the split second nose sneer…
= = How is that person’s body language? Is the person engaging and inclusive or isolated and off-putting? Be very careful here because sometimes body language will throw you off if you are not paying attention to everything. i.e. a person’s arms might be crossed because they are cold or are just nervous – and not due to a guilty conscious. They might be rubbing their hands together out of greed or maybe just looking forward to a very successful deal concluding.
= = What about the group dynamics, is something odd going on?
= = Watch how people talk, are they giving you clear responses or rambling or constantly shifting? Are they talking fast or slow – different from what they would normally talk like?
Be careful here too, because there might be ordinary reasons for that change of tone, inflection and speech speed. In my case, when someone is being obstinate or has crossed me, my speech slows down, becomes much deeper and very commanding – but nothing malevolent, obstreperous or duplicitous.
— — — You ‘cannot’ take or use anything in isolation, you cannot afford to.
= = What about the environment where people are, is it warm, buzzing and excited or is it a lugubrious and darkly quiet setting?
= = What about any products that your possible target may be working on or undertaking any expensive (and maybe covert) advanced R & D efforts – anything that appears innocuous but has massively possible multiple applications for that product? Something that appears to be intended for a benign industry for consumerization but can easily be fitted/decked out for lethal and/or clandestine uses…?
= = What kind of leader is leading? Is that person a dictatorial / autocratic leader and people follow out of fear of reprisal? Or is that leader a benevolent and fair leader?
= = Is the land of Chinastan going to invade the country of Russtystan? If so, you need to target Chinastan’s, whatever, their communication networks (TV, radio or satellite), their internet connections and ISPs or even the printed press for any leads. You may even need to target Russtystan for multiple aspects to see why Chinastan is willing to invade… You may have to look at troop movements, satellite repositioning, diplomatic overtures or lack of any overture.
(*** I had to use made up names for bogus countries because our U.S. intelligence community may think there is some kind of leakage of classified info – trust me on this one.)
= = What about the social and economic environment? These play a huge factor in your observations. Is the environment one of hope, a bright future for people hungry to grow? Or is the environment one of despair, censorship, blocking of free wills.
— — — Things like the environment and leadership matter because it causes the people in those settings to think and react differently.
Remember — we, Americans or anyone else in the world, do not live in a microcosm, we live in a world society in which there are massive interactions that affect everyone. Just because you do not live near someone in a different city, anywhere in the world, it does not mean that what they do or might do will not affect you. It will in some way. It could affect you immediately (as in 9/11) or it might take some time to matriculate (for example, childhood to adulthood) and reach fruition. Look at globalization as one aspect and how work was shifted abroad and how that has continually caused salaries/pay to go up in developing countries – jobs have been coming back to the U.S.
Risks – you want to look at all the various risk factors that could be involved OR could play a part. Be proactive and think of ‘possible’ risks and not just current risks.
You also want to take a look at current and future vulnerabilities that could lead an adversary to make a move on their target. What makes something you’re looking at a soft and open target? What is special about it? Does it affect a select, elite group of people or would it affect a significantly large number of people – causing their leadership to rethink some position?
Tools & Databases
Some agencies dislike anyone talking in public about what kinds of databases are used – public and open source databases need to be used more, in fear of them losing their competitive advantage.
There are multiple databases out there for use and consumption, you need to become very knowledgeable about the work you are doing and then seek out as many sources and databases as possible for your daily use. These databases, as well as open social media sites are gold mines (unless people like me put in bogus info for some sites – because all social media sites ‘do not’ need to have all of your personal info) to pull info from.
There are also tools out there, mostly ones you or your company has to pay for that will aid you in performing analysis efforts.
There are other methods to help you in doing analysis, tools where you can use pen and paper or spreadsheets or teams to work out.
There are several areas (from “A Tradecraft Primer”, which also does a great job in discussing some biases, R. Heuers also does a great job in his writing especially on Thinking, Perception and Memory, see references) – I only include the most basic explanation below:
Alternative Competing Hypotheses – multiple hypotheses to work out different aspects of a problem set
– – and others
Devil’s Advocacy – you play the opposing role with wild ideas, going against the grain of what the others are thinking of
What If Analysis – you just come up with multiple scenarios to work out various angles that could occur or not
– – and others
Red Team – you play the penetrator or the one trying to get in by using whatever methods you can
Brain storming – you know this, no idea is too wild until you can prove it is worthless – later
– – and others
Types of Biases (some)
Following are several mechanisms you have to fight against as you use your intelligence and critical thinking skills. You can research these on your own for more details.
There is a very good book by Eli Pariser  titled “The Filter Bubble” that came out a few years ago, which my wife told me about (and I purchased it). In it, he talks about how the filtering effects continue to build and build, making an individual’s world and social circle smaller and smaller. One great example in the book is on Google Search and how it “personalizes” your search for you, if you let it that is. Personally, pun intended, I want my own search, full of outliers and randomness because there just might be some worthwhile info to explore.
In his book and talks, he goes on that you should beware of online filter bubbles; however, I believe the filter bubble effect goes beyond just online, it is your entire life, your everyday living that you have to be careful of in what you selectively filter… Have some serendipity in your life; be brave and bold in exploring topics/content that you do not ‘normally’ engage in.
– – – Caveat: Pariser talks about serendipity in his book as well but I was living that and believed in it before I read him discussing the topic.
Anchoring Bias – You give an inordinate amount of weight, beyond reason, towards a wrong/incorrect or less important item
Confirmation Bias – This is one where a person favors their own info over other possibly more solid and valid info. This is the ‘selective memory’ situation and one where you have to step outside your own body in making valuations. If you are biased and know it and do nothing about it while continuing down that path, you doom your own analysis.
You have to be a bigger person and accept other people’s knowledge at times, if it is good info that is… Do not just rely solely on your own all the time!!!
– – – Hmmm, in 2011 I wrote a paper on Confirmation Bias and Search engines, I’ll have to find it and post it later.
Cognitive Bias – Basically, this one is where you draw conclusions based on your past experiences and can possibly distort the outcome because your own experiences may cause you to slant the outcome in the direction you really want… some call it “a deviation in judgment” – leading you to “a distortion in perception” or “an illogical interpretation.”
Framing Bias – One gives a too-narrow description or approach to a problem set
Normalcy Bias – One does not plan for an emergency situation simply because it has never happened before. This is a no-brainer; you have to plan for different situations
Political & Religious Biases – Be very, very careful of these two as they tend to lead people astray from whatever they are working on, all because you may have different likes and dislikes from ‘others’ who hold a differing perspective. If I were you, I would make every effort to recognize these two biases within yourself and excise them…
There are so many biases one has to be aware of, please do some research on these and other biases. Here are a couple more areas of biases:
Social Biases – Egocentric bias or Actor-Observer bias or even better, Projection bias and Self-Serving bias
Memory Biases – Change bias, Cross-race effect or Misinformation effect
Happiness at Work
Be forewarned before you make a move to any kind of intelligence work, it can be boring because of all the reading and research you will need to do. But, it can be exciting if you like connecting dots that others seem not able to, so that should make it worth your while.
You already know in your head that you can more than likely work independently but, in addition to working on your own; you must also be able to work with a team, or other teams. In today’s world, it is about collaboration, or as one of the floating buzz words states, fusion. You need to be able to gel with other people and adapt to working with multiple personalities.
Ethics & Integrity
This is a huge section. You must have above board ethics and integrity. We should live in a world where our word is our bond, but unfortunately, there are too many people who flat out have no personal ethics or integrity. If you develop a persona of being that person who’s word and handshake is there bond, you will be even more respected by those where this still means a thing or two.
You also need to remain cognizant of whatever work you do that you do it without trampling on the privacy and human rights of others.
A very good working/short-term memory in conjunction with a solid long-term memory will serve you very well.
See if you can read up on how to develop a better one, or go to one of the sites (Lumosity or Posit Science’s Brain Training or other software) to become a member and play those brain games to sharpen your noggin…
Remember, make solid decisions based on the best evidence you can scrounge up, after you’ve done a bang up job doing the preliminary research and analysis. There may be times, in high pressure or critical situations where you may not have all the time you need to make the best decision possible. That is all there is to it, time will be out of your hands, so, please adapt and adjust. The caveat at these junctions is that of time and any supervisor, manager, executive worth their salt will know of that time crunch. They should.
This is another hugely serious area and a large concern for me. When you work with or for or manage others, you had best be sure you have these kinds of ducks in a solid row or you could face legal charges.
You should never disrespect or disparage or patronize another person for any of the following reasons:
– – – Gender, Looks, The way another talks (stammer, lisp, etc.), Where the other person is from, What their race is, What their culture is, What religion or religious beliefs another/others practice, What political party they believe in, or what their sexual preference is for that matter. Never forget this and don’t fall victim to it. You will not regret it if you remain strong and avoid demeaning or harming others.
None of these should be your business. All that matters is that everyone can and will get the job done, successfully, efficiently and effectively!!!
Your vision, your goals of where you want to aspire to reach is up to you. Some people want to work in the weeds all their lives; others want to remain in mid-level management, while others want to be the executive. It is up to you and where you want to go, in whatever work you wish to perform, even if it is a stepping stone. Do what a senior USAID executive told me when I was a young U.S. Marine overseas – “Shoot for the stars!”
Never, never, NEVER stop being curious and learning. Never stop learning how to become a better person or thinker. Never stop learning how to improve your Intelligence and not just for Intelligence work, whether it is for a business, for an intelligence agency or the military.
Try to find the best collaborative team and working environment that you can. It will continue to stoke your motivation to do more and better.
Do not ever be afraid to ask questions! Always ask, people where you work will appreciate it that you came to them for an answer.
I do not care what country you live in, I believe we can do better together and become a more inclusive global society and a continually fractious and contentious grouping of opposing countries.
Following are reference information and materials you should take a look at to start off – even if a couple of them are related to Military or Intelligence organizations, you can still gain some good insight to overall Intelligence, Strategic Intelligence and for Business Intelligence.
Reference information & material
Type A and Type B leaders
Type A characters are supposedly highly driven for success at all costs, health be damned. I’ve seen these mannerisms (as have you probably) from some in my life but I’m including definitions of others here.
Some people label them as being high strung with Wikipedia even using this definition – ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status conscious, can be sensitive, truthful, impatient, always try to help others, take on more than they can handle, want other people to get to the point, proactive, and obsessed with time management. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving “workaholics” who multi-task, push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence.
Other research  describes Type A as being:
Displaying an unrealistic sense of urgency
Then there are Type B individuals for which I’ve also seen in my life and am including brief definitions from others here.
These are folks who may be labeled  as generally lives at a lower stress level and typically:
Work steadily, enjoying achievements but not becoming stressed when they are not achieved
When faced with competition, they do not mind losing and either enjoy the game or back down
May be creative and enjoy exploring ideas and concepts
Are often reflective, thinking about the outer and inner worlds
Wait for it, there are also Type C (and Type D, which I’m not defining here) individuals and am including brief definitions from others here.
Type C’s  are often known as the direct opposite of type B personality types. These individuals are often introverts and have an eye for detail. These individuals also tend to be perfectionists and strive for accuracy in whatever they do.
Type C individuals are also thoughtful and are deep thinkers. They like to know the details of each and every task at hand and have a need to know why things are the way they are. Their personality traits makes them best suited for technical jobs that requires an exceptional eye for detail such as engineers or accountants. These individuals also tend to be patient, yet they are not capable of expressing their emotions freely. Most of the times, these individuals ignore their feelings. They also lack assertiveness and cannot hold their ground when faced with opposition, even if it means that they get hurt in the process. They also have an innate tendency to please people around them.
Also check out the Foundation for Critical Thinking, http://www.criticalthinking.org/, they have multiple inexpensive booklets on Critical Thinking (I bought several last year).
Note, they do take some getting used to, the way they are written but they hold good info, such as:
– The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts & Tools
– The Thinker Guide for Students on How to Study & Learn a discipline
– The Miniature Guide to the Art of Asking Essential Questions
 Markman, Art, “Smart Thinking: Three Essential Keys to Solve Problems, Innovate, and Get Things Done,” Dec 2012
 Kahneman, Daniel, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Apr 2013
 Pariser, Eli, The Filter Bubble, May 2011
Video, May 2011 – http://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter_bubbles.html
Article – http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2011/05/12/the-filter-bubble/
 – Working With a Type A Personality – http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/digital-leaders/201201/working-type-personality
 – Type B – http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/typea_typeb.htm
 – Type C Personality & Traits – http://typeapersonality.org/typecpersonality.php
(An individual on LinkedIn supplied this book info, which I plan to get…)
Amazon link for Critical Thinking for Strategic Intelligence by Katherine Hibbs Pherson and Randolph H. Pherson: http://www.amazon.com/Critical-Thinking-For-Strategic-Intelligence/dp/1452226679/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1377189055&sr=8-1&keywords=Critical+Thinking+for+Strategic+Intelligence
(While I have some of the following books, another individual in my LinkedIn Intelligence group [restricted membership] put this list together…)
CIA, public website, “A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic techniques for Improving Intelligence Analysis” April 2009
On-line at: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/Tradecraft%20Primer-apr09.pdf#!
Cohen, Marvin S., Bryan B. Thompson, Leonard Adelman, Terry A. Bresnick, and Lokendra Shastri, “Training Critical Thinking for the Battlefield–Volume 1: Basis in Cognitive Theory and Research.” U.S. Army Research Institute, Field Unit Leavenworth, 2000. Online at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.104.5283&rep=rep1&type=pdf (69 pages).
Cohen, Marvin S., Bryan B. Thompson, Leonard Adelman, Terry A. Bresnick, and Lokendra Shastri, “Training Critical Thinking for the Battlefield–Volume 2: Training Systemn and Evaluation.” U.S. Army Research Institute, Field Unit Leavenworth, 2000. Online at: http://www.cog-tech.com/papers/mentalmodels/Vol_IITraining.pdf (131 pages).
Cooper, Jeffrey. “Curing Analytic Pathologies” CIA Dec 2005
On-line at: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/curing-analytic-pathologies-pathways-to-improved-intelligence-analysis-1/analytic_pathologies_report.pdf#!
Facione, Peter A. Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Insight Assessment, 2010. On-line at:
http://www.insightassessment.com/content/download/1176/7580/file/what&why2010.pdf (28 pages)
Gerras, Stephen J. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking: A Fundamental Guide for Strategic Leaders. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2008. On-line at: http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/dclm/CT%20Paper%20AY10.docx (30 pages)
Guillot, W. M. Critical Thinking for the Military Professional. Air and Space Power Chronicles, 2004. On-line at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/404.asp#! (12 pages)
Heuer, Richards J. The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. CIA 1999 Online at: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/PsychofIntelNew.pdf
Kruger, Justin & David Dunning. “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 77, No. 6., pp 121-1134. On-line at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.64.2655&rep=rep1&type=pdf